Internist-2017-Gender-and-cardiovascular-diseasespic-pdf-fileGeschlecht und Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen
Warum wir Gendermedizin brauchen

(Der Internist Ausgabe 4-2017)

Ein Textauszug:

Geschlechterunterschiede bei Risikofaktoren für Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen

Kardiovaskuläre Risikofaktoren nehmen bei  Frauen  zu,  vor  allem  Stoffwechselerkrankungen  und  Übergewicht,  negative Veränderungen im Lebensstil, Rauchen, zu  geringe  körperliche Belastung und  vermehrter Stress im  Alltag.  Stress spielt bei Frauen und Männern eine Rolle in  der  Entstehung  von  Herzerkrankungen.  Er  wurde  jedoch  kürzlich  in  der VIRGO-Studie  als  wichtiger  Risikofaktor für das Auftreten und den schlechten Verlauf eines Myokardinfarkts bei Frauen  identifiziert.  Nach älteren  Studien  unterscheiden  sich  die  wahrscheinlich krank machenden Stressformen bei Frauen und Männern. Dies wurde jedoch nicht in neueren Studien überprüft.

Diabetes fördert das Auftreten einer koronaren Herzkrankheit bei Frauen stärker als bei Männern.

Diabetes  ist  ein wichtiger Risikofaktor, der das Auftreten einer koronaren Herzkrankheit bei Frauen stärker fördert als bei  Männern.  Altersabhängig  erhöht er bei Frauen das Risiko für das Auftreten einer Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungumdas 5- bis 7-fache, bei Männern um das 3- bis 4-fache. Damit gleicht sich das absolute Risiko der Frauen und  Männer mit Diabetes an.  
Häufigere  Komorbiditäten wie  Übergewicht  und  chronische  Entzündungen  sowie  ungünstige  Veränderungen im Gerinnungssystem und in der Endothelfunktion tragen wahrscheinlich zum größeren relativen kardiometabolischen Risiko bei diabetischen Frauen bei [3].  Die  Frühstadien  des  Diabetes  bzw. der  Prädiabetes,  der  bei  älteren  Euro- päern bereits eine Prävalenz von bis zu 40 % erreicht hat und mit einem erhöhten kardiovaskulären Risiko einhergeht, unterscheiden sich  ebenfalls  bei  Männern und Frauen. Frauen haben eher eine gestörte Glukosetoleranz, Männer früher pathologische Nüchternglukosewerte. Rauchen ist ein wichtiger Risikofaktor bei  Frauen  und  Männern.  Die  europäischen Zahlen sagen,  dass immer mehr junge Frauen rauchen. Die Nichtraucherkampagnen haben die Männer bisher anscheinend besser erreicht als die Frauen.


pic-pdf-fileSex in basic research: concepts in the cardiovascular field

(Cardiovascular Research (2017))


Women and men, female and male animals and cells are biologically different, and acknowledgement of this fact is critical to advancing medicine. However, incorporating concepts of sex-specific analysis in basic research is largely neglected, introducing bias into translational findings, clinical concepts and drug development. Research funding agencies recently approached these issues but implementation of policy changes in the scientific community is still limited, probably due to deficits in concepts, knowledge and proper methodology. This expert review is based on the EUGenMed project ( developing a roadmap for implementing sex and gender in biomedical and health research. For sake of clarity and conciseness, examples are mainly taken from the cardiovascular field that may serve as a paradigm for others, since a significant amount of knowledge how sex and oestrogen determine the manifestation of many cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been accumulated. As main concepts for implementation of sex in basic research, the study of primary cell and animals of both sexes, the study of the influence of genetic vs. hormonal factors and the analysis of sex chromosomes and sex specific statistics in genome wide association studies (GWAS) are discussed. The review also discusses methodological issues, and analyses strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in implementing sex-sensitive aspects into basic research.

Cardiopuls-2017-Peters pic-pdf-filePregnancy and risk of cardiovascular disease:
is the relationship due to childbearing or childrearing?

(Cardiopuls 2017)

Pregnancy has long been considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
However, recent evidence showing similar relationships between the number of children and cardiovascular disease in men suggests that childrearing is more likely than childbearing to affect the risk of cardiovascular disease.




Seeland-U Prevalence-of-arterial-stiffnesspic-pdf-fileBioscience Reports (2016) 36

Prevalence of arterial stiffness and the risk of myocardial diastolic dysfunction in women

The present study determines the prevalence of vascular dysfunction and arterial stiffness (ASt) in a female urban population by measuring the brachial augmentation index (AIx) and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV). The study tests the hypothesis that the measurement of AIx and PWV is useful in addition to that of traditional cardiovascular risk factors when assessing the risk for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). This cross-sectional study recruited 965 women aged 25–75 years from 12 districts of Berlin. The ASt indices, brachial AIx, aortic PWV and the central blood pressure were measured by an oscillometric method. A randomly selected subgroup (n = 343) was examined by echocardiography. Trans-mitral inflow E/A ratio and diastolic mitral annulus velocity (´e) were assessed.
Questionnaires, medical history and blood sampling were used for the evaluation of individual risk factors. Normal vascular function was found in 55% of the women included. The prevalence of women with pathological AIx only (AIx −10%, PWV normal) was 21.5%, whereas 17.9% were affected by increased AIx and PWV (AIx  −10%, PWV 9.7 m/s), and 6% with only pathological PWV values. The prevalence of LVDD was 31.7%. LVDD was significantly associated with pathological PWV  9.7 m/s [OR: 1.27, 95%CI: 1.02–1.57], age [OR: 4.17, 95%CI: 2.87–6.07] and a waist circumference >80 cm [OR: 3.61, 95%CI: 1.85–7.04] in multiple regression analysis. The high prevalence of markers for vascular dysfunction and ASt in a general female population and their importance as a mediator of diastolic dysfunction should encourage implementation of aortic PWV measurement to improve cardiovascular-risk assessment in particular to identify subclinical myocardial diastolic dysfunction.




publication-2016-seelandpic-pdf-fileeGender - from e-Learning to e-Research:
a web-based interactive knowledge-sharing platform for sex- and gender-specific medical education



Background: Sex and Gender Medicine is a novel discipline that provides equitable medical care for society and improves outcomes for both male and female patients. The integration of sex- and gender-specific knowledge into medical curricula is limited due to adequate learning material, systematic teacher training and an innovative communication strategy. We aimed at initiating an e-learning and knowledge-sharing platform for Sex and Gender Medicine, the eGender platform (, to ensure that future doctors and health professionals will have adequate knowledge and communication skills on sex and gender differences in order to make informed decisions for their patients.

Methods: The web-based eGender knowledge-sharing platform was designed to support the blended learning pedagogical teaching concept and follows the didactic concept of constructivism. Learning materials developed by Sex and Gender Medicine experts of seven universities have been used as the basis for the new learning tools. The content of these tools is patient-centered and provides add-on information on gender-sensitive aspects of diseases. The structural part of eGender was designed and developed using the open source e-learning platform Moodle. The eGender platform comprises an English and a German version of e-learning modules: one focusing on basic knowledge and seven on specific medical disciplines. Each module consists of several courses corresponding to a disease or symptom complex. Self-organized learning has to be managed by using different learning tools, e.g., texts and audiovisual material, tools for online communication and collaborative work.

Results: More than 90 users from Europe registered for the eGender Medicine learning modules. The most frequently accessed module was “Gender Medicine-Basics” and the users favored discussion forums. These elearning modules fulfill the quality criteria for higher education and are used within the elective Master Module “Gender Medicine-Basics” implemented into the accredited Master of Public Health at Charité-Berlin.


EHJ-2015-Gender-in-cardiovascular-diseases-1pic-pdf-fileEuropean Heart Journal Advance Access published November 3, 2015
Gender in cardiovascular diseases: impact on clinical manifestations, management and outcomes:



In the vast majority of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), there are well-described differences between women and men in epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, effects of therapy, and outcomes. 1 – 3 These differences arise on one hand from biological differences among women and men, which are called sex differences.
They are due to differences in gene expression from the sex chromosomes and subsequent differences in sexual hormones leading to differences in gene expression and function in the CV system, e.g. in vascular function and NO signalling, in myocardial remodelling under stress, or metabolism of drugs by sexspecific cytochrome expression. Sex differences are frequently reproducible in animal models. In contrast, gender differences are unique to the human. They arise from sociocultural processes, such as different behaviours of women and men; exposure to specific influences of the environment; different forms of nutrition, lifestyle, or stress; or attitudes towards treatments and prevention.
These are equally important for CVDs. Both sex and gender (S&G) influence human development (Figure 1). Since it is almost impossible to distinguish properly between effects of S&G in the medical field, the EUGenMed writing group decided to discuss both of them together and to use the term S&G for all medical relevant differences between women and men in the present review ...


book-sex-and-gender-differences-smallpic-book-linkSex and Gender Differences in Pharmacology

Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera (Eds.)
Springer-Verlag Ausgabe 2012
Hardcover, ISBN 978-3642307256
Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology (Band 214)

 This is the very first book to deal with sex and gender differences in drug therapy - an increasingly recognized medical need. It starts with an overview on S/G in clinical syndromes and a documentation of the medical and socioeconomic damage caused by gender specific adverse drug effects. Part I covers S/G differences in pharmacokinetics. Researchers will be satisfied by the detailed discussion of the mechanisms of S/G differences in drug effects that represents cutting edge science and includes interaction of drugs with sex hormones, genomic and epigenetic mechanisms. It also covers S/G in drug development, in animal models and clinical development and S/G in drug prescriptions. Part II targets S/G differences in drug effects in cardiovascular, pulmonary, CNS, neuromuscular, neuropsychiatric and metabolic diseases, in cancer, inflammation, and rheumatic diseases, in bacterial and retroviral infections, thrombosis, embolism. New drugs will be discussed.


book-sex-and-gender aspects-smallpic-book-linkSex and Gender Aspects in Clinical Medicine

Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera (Eds.)
2012, 2012, XI, 201 p. 29 illus., 27 in color.
Hardcover, ISBN 978-0-85729-831-7

Dear friends,
Dear colleagues,

Gender Medicine is an emerging and exiting new scientific field. Its inclusion into medical practice and education was hampered by the fact that there was no short and comprehensive teaching book that covered all aspects of gender medicine.

We are now proud and happy that we can introduce such a book:
The teaching book “Sex and Gender aspects in Clinical Medicine” is the first and only book in this area that is based on a systematic literature review in nine major clinical disciplines. It offers a well focused and comprehensive presentation of the field in 12 chapters with numerous figures, tables, summaries and Take Home Messages by internationally recognised experts.

We worked hard to assemble the available literature in an unbiased approach and to have it interpreted by international outstanding experts.
The book is available as hardcover as well as eBook.

I hope that you enjoy reading.
With the very best regards
Vera Regitz-Zagrosek